|Glossary of Terms
|Administrative Technical and Billing contacts
records name the individuals
or entities that represent
a registrant and are responsible for the administration
of a domain name. There are three types of contacts: Administrative,
and Billing. Generally administrative contacts
have the ability to modify all information relating
to a domain name. Technical contacts can modify technical
details such as the name servers.
The administrative, billing and technical contact records
for a domain name are kept by the registrar and a contact
can be a single person,
organisation. It is important to keep these records up to
date and this is often made a condition in the registration
with a registrar.
are represented on the Internet by two letters, for instance
.uk (United Kingdom,
.us (United States), .ca (Canada), .au (Australia) and .nz
(New Zealand). These codes are called ccTLDs (country code
Some ccTLDs (for instance .bz, .cc, .fm, .tv, and .ws) are
as 'alternatives' to more traditional TLDs such
A domain name is the address web surfers
use to find your web site and, as such, is the core of
your online identity.
Computers on the Internet use IP
(Internet Protocol) addresses (e.g., 123.456.78.90) to locate other computers. However
Internet users would have a difficult time remembering
these long strings of numbers to find websites. Domain
names were developed to translate these IP numbers into
easily remembered domain names.
Domain Names always have two
or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the far
left is the most specific and the part on the far right
is known as the TLD or ccTLD.
Your domain name is unique,
as once registered, no other
may use exactly the same identity online.
stands for Domain Name System. It is essentially a worldwide
distributed database that is used to translate
unique domain names into
IP addresses. The
network of computers making up the Internet map Domain
names onto their corresponding IP numbers using
information stored in a Registry.
is a service which allows you to forward emails
addressed to your domain directly to another email account,
for instance a free webmail account. This service can enable
you to save money on the cost of web
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
oversees the domain name business. It awards the contracts
for the operation of the TLD registries, accredits registrars,
and also has a dispute resolution policy. ICANN is
which holds meetings at different international locations
throughout each year.
for Internet Protocol. An IP address consists of a unique
number comprising of four parts separated by dots. Every
computer that stores information available on the Internet
has a unique number, which correlates to its domain
ISP stands for Internet Service Provider. An ISP provides
access to the Internet to the general public, usually over
a facility provided by a registrar which allows
Administrative and Technical Contacts to update or change
relating to a domain name.
Most registrars do not charge a fee for this service, however
some of the 'bargain' registrars will charge a fee. It
is worthwhile to check this in the registration agreement.
name's Name Server records indicate or 'point' to the
name of a computer that will contain authoritative
name and will translate the domain
name to its corresponding IP number.
There are usually at least two name servers, and these
are known as the Primary and Secondary nameservers.
The Secondary nameserver is used in addition to,
and as a backup for, the Primary name server. It is important
that the name server information for a domain name is correct
as without this, the domain name will fail to 'resolve'
properly and will not be functional. A web host will provide
details of the name server needed.
entity, organisation, or individual that is the legal ‘owner’ of
a particular domain name is known
as the Registrant. In fact no one ever ‘owns’ a
domain name. The use of the name is rented or leased from
the registry through
a registrar for periods ranging
from 1 to 10 years. However the ‘owner’ has
first option on renewal of the name. When registering a
domain name for
a company or organisation, be sure that your company or
organisation’s name is listed as the Registrant if
you wish the company or organisation to legally have control
over the domain.
organisation or entity, which acts on behalf of a registrant and handles domain
name registrations or modifications, is
known as a Registrar. All domain names ending in a TLD are
required to be processed through a Registrar. Registrars
are accredited by ICANN.
the organisation responsible for the administration and maintenance
of the top-level domain database. The
Registry is where registrars create
new, or modify existing domain
names for registrants.
names need to be renewed for a small fee every year.
If a registrant fails to renew
a domain name it is deleted from the registry database
and, after a short 'grace' period (usually around 45 days),
made available to the public again for registration. The
more valuable names are often bought within a few minutes
of being released.
part separated by a dot to the far right in a domain name
is called the Top Level Domain or TLD and is usually three
or four letters long. Examples of TLDs are .com, .net, .org,
.info and .biz. There are also two-letter country
code TLDs (ccTLDs). There are currently
more than 250 TLDs.
forwarding (sometimes called 'URL forwarding' or 'domain
forwarding') is a service
which allows you to forward any incoming requests
for your domain directly to an existing website. This service
can enable you to save money on the cost of web
hosting by allowing you to redirect different domain names to one
are two types of web forwarding. Standard
redirection sends your domain visitors to any website you
specify, but the true address of the destination
website will display in the viewer's
browser and not the domain name that they typed in to reach
Stealth redirection (sometimes called 'cloaking redirection')
also sends your domain visitors to any website you specify,
your visitor typed in continues
to display in his or her browser when they reach the
visiting any page within that website. The user is thus
unaware that he or she has been redirected to another web
For web forwarding services to work, the name
servers for the domain name have to be changed to the name servers
specified by the web forwarding service provider.
Host (or web hosting provider) offers a service whereby
its computer stores the files needed to enable your web
Internet. This is usually
for a small monthly fee. The computer used to store your
files is called a 'server'. For the web hosting service
to work, the
for the domain name must 'point' to the web
a service operated by the registrars which
allows you to search for information about the owner or registrant of any domain name
You can find contact information for the owner, together
with details of the domain name servers,
and the administrative,
technical and billing contacts. Sometimes the Whois will
also provide information about the date the domain was first
registered and the expiry date.
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